Maintenance du disque avec smart

Pour vérifier l’état du disque en temps réel j’utilise l’outil smart


Environnement

PC sous Linux Debian 10 ( Buster)

Logiciels installés

apt list --installed | grep smart

gedit-plugin-smart-spaces/testing,unstable,now 3.30.1-2 amd64 [installé, automatique]
gsmartcontrol/testing,unstable,now 1.1.3-2 amd64 [installé]
libatasmart4/testing,unstable,now 0.19-5 amd64 [installé, automatique]
libsmartcols1/testing,now 2.32.1-0.1 amd64 [installé]
smart-notifier/stable,stable,testing,testing,unstable,unstable,now 0.28-5 all [installé]
smartmontools/testing,unstable,now 6.6-1 amd64 [installé]

Configuration

Dans /etc/smartd.conf la seule ligne dé-commentée

DEVICESCAN -d removable -n standby -m root -M exec /usr/share/smartmontools/smartd-runner

Explications

https://linux.die.net/man/5/smartd.conf

removable - the device or its media is removable. This indicates to smartd that it should continue (instead of exiting, which is the default behavior) if the device does not appear to be present when smartd is started
standby - check the device unless it is in SLEEP or STANDBY mode. In these modes most disks are not spinning, so if you want to prevent a laptop disk from spinning up each time that smartd polls, this is probably what you want.
-m ADD
Send a warning email to the email address
-M
exec PATH - run the executable PATH instead of the default mail command, when smartd needs to send email. PATH must point to an executable binary file or script.

Commandes utiles

Dans mon cas le disque est /dev/sda

Lister les infos sur le disque

smartctl -a /dev/sda

Lancer un test court

smartctl -t short /dev/sda

Lire les résultats des tests

smartctl -l selftest /dev/sda

Plus d’infos sur smartctl

Vérifier l’état du service

systemctl status smartd.service -l --no-pager

Exemple

systemctl status smartd.service -l --no-pager
● smartd.service - Self Monitoring and Reporting Technology (SMART) Daemon
_ Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/smartd.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)_
_ Active: active (running) since Sun 2018-11-25 12:23:02 CET; 2h 12min ago_
_ Docs: man:smartd(8)_
_ man:smartd.conf(5)_
_ Main PID: 578 (smartd)_
_ Tasks: 1 (limit: 4297)_
_ Memory: 3.1M_
_ CGroup: /system.slice/smartd.service_
_ └─578 /usr/sbin/smartd -n_
nov. 25 12:23:04 debian smartd[578]: Device: /dev/sda [SAT], found in smartd database: Hitachi Travelstar 7K500
nov. 25 12:23:05 debian smartd[578]: Device: /dev/sda [SAT], is SMART capable. Adding to “monitor” list.
nov. 25 12:23:05 debian smartd[578]: Device: /dev/sda [SAT], state read from /var/lib/smartmontools/smartd.Hitachi_HTS725032A9A364-110305PCKC04BPJ0X3GK.ata.state
nov. 25 12:23:05 debian smartd[578]: Monitoring 1 ATA/SATA, 0 SCSI/SAS and 0 NVMe devices
nov. 25 12:23:05 debian smartd[578]: Device: /dev/sda [SAT], SMART Usage Attribute: 190 Airflow_Temperature_Cel changed from 57 to 79
nov. 25 12:23:05 debian smartd[578]: Device: /dev/sda [SAT], state written to /var/lib/smartmontools/smartd.Hitachi_HTS725032A9A364-110305PCKC04BPJ0X3GK.ata.state
nov. 25 12:53:06 debian smartd[578]: Device: /dev/sda [SAT], SMART Usage Attribute: 190 Airflow_Temperature_Cel changed from 79 to 64
nov. 25 13:23:05 debian smartd[578]: Device: /dev/sda [SAT], SMART Usage Attribute: 190 Airflow_Temperature_Cel changed from 64 to 60
nov. 25 13:53:05 debian smartd[578]: Device: /dev/sda [SAT], SMART Usage Attribute: 190 Airflow_Temperature_Cel changed from 60 to 58
nov. 25 14:23:05 debian smartd[578]: Device: /dev/sda [SAT], SMART Usage Attribute: 190 Airflow_Temperature_Cel changed from 58 to 57

Automatisation

Ajouter une tâche hebdomadaire /etc/cron.weekly/smartctl

avec le contenu suivant:

#! /bin/bash
#set -e
/usr/sbin/smartctl -t short /dev/sda
/bin/sleep 180
/usr/sbin/smartctl -l selftest /dev/sda

Par Bidouille De Bian

Bidouilleur sur Linux Debian 10 (Buster). Débutant dans le blog sur Wordpress.